Fusion Technology

Fusion power is the generation of energy by nuclear fusion. Fusion reactions are high energy reactions in which two lighter atomic nuclei fuse to form a heavier nucleus. When they combine, some of the mass is lost. This is converted into energy through E = mc2 Fusion power is a research effort to try and harness this energy to power large scale cleaner energy. It is also a major part of plasma physics research.

In large scale commercial proposals, heat from the fusion reaction is used to operate a steam turbine that drives electrical generators, as in existing fossil fuel and nuclear fission power stations.

How Fusion Technology works?

  1. In a fusion reaction, energy is released when two light atomic nuclei are fused together to form one heavier atom. This is the process that provides the energy powering the Sun and other stars, where hydrogen nuclei are combined to form helium.

  2. To achieve high enough fusion reaction rates to make fusion useful as an energy source, the fuel (two types of hydrogen-deuterium and tritium) must be heated to temperatures over 100 million degrees Celsius. At these temperatures the fuel becomes a plasma. This incredibly hot plasma is also extremely thin and fragile, a million times less dense than air. To keep the plasma from being contaminated and cooled by contact with material surfaces it is contained in a magnetic confinement system.

The Need for Fusion Technology

Energy supplies are an essential requirement for economic growth and enhancement of life standards. To sustain and increase the present rate of world energy use, according to expectations for this century, there are three large Energy:

  1. Solar Energy.
  2. Fission with Breeding.
  3. Fusion.

Benefits of Fusion Technology


  • No Carbon Emissions

The only by-products of fusion reactions are small amounts of helium, which is an inert gas that will not add to atmospheric pollution.

  • Abundant Fuels

Deuterium can be extracted from water and tritium is produced from lithium, which is found in the earth's crust. Fuel supplies will therefore last for millions of years.

  • Energy Efficiency

One kilogram of fusion fuel can provide the same amount of energy as 10 million kilograms of fossil fuel. No long-lived Radioactive Waste: Only plant components become radioactive and these will be safe to recycle or dispose of conventionally within 100 years.

  • Safety

The small amounts of fuel used in fusion devices (about the weight of a postage stamp at any one time) means that a large-scale nuclear accident is not possible.

  • Reliable Power

Fusion power plants should provide a baseload supply of large amounts of electricity, at costs that are estimated to be broadly similar to other energy sources.

Advantages of Fusion Technology Clean energy.

• Clean energy. No greenhouse gases. Virtually limitless fuel available.

• No chain reaction. Easier to control or stop than fission.

• Very low fuel cost.

Disadvantages of Fusion Technology

• Unproven at anything resembling commercial scale. Could produce a net

negative amount of energy.

• If cold fusion could be achieved, it would be much easier to implement


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